Mbo (peuple du Cameroun)
Les Mbô'o sont un peuple bantou d'Afrique centrale établi au sud-ouest du Cameroun, dans la Région du Littoral et une partie de la région de l'Ouest, Kekem Santchou. Cette dernière initialement au littoral avant 1960 fut concédée à l'ouest[pas clair] dans l'optique de contrer et contenir le mouvement national UPC qui sévissait à l'ouest pour réclamer l'indépendance du Cameroun.
The Mungo (Moungo) are an ethnic group of the Republic of Cameroon. Along with the other coastal peoples, they belong to the Sawa ethnic groups. The Mungo have historically been related with the Duala people, The two ethnic bantu groups share similar cultures, histories, and claims of origin. King Ekandjoum Joseph is known as the last King of the Moungo Kingdom before Cameroon was founded.
History and geographyModifier
The Mungo roots can be traced back to ancient Egypt. Some claim the same history as the Duala and Limba, descending from a man named Mbedi. From a place called Piti (northeast of Douala), Mbedi's sons Ewale and Dibongo migrated south toward the Cameroon coast.
By the 16th century, the Duala had become the leading traders in Cameroon. The Mungo provided goods to the Duala in exchange for goods obtained from the Europeans, such as alcohol, gunpowder, guns, mirrors, shoes, textiles, and tools.
In 1918, Germany lost World War I, and her colonies became mandates of the League of Nations. Great Britain and France split the administration of the Kameruns, partitioning the Cameroonian Littoral. The Mungo were divided in two. Map showing the location of the various Duala ethnic groups of Cameroon The Mungo live along the Mungo River's lower stretch and the creeks that feed it. Their territory straddles the border of the Moungo division of the Littoral Province and the Fako division of the Southwest Province. Fishing is the primary means of subsistence.
The Mungo who speak a language related of Duala. Mungo is part of the Bantu group of the Niger–Congo language family.
In addition, individuals who have attended school or lived in an urban centre usually speak a European language. For Littoral Mungo, this is French; for Southwest Mungo, it is Cameroonian Pidgin English or standard English; and for the Mungo it is one or the other. A growing number of the Anglophones today grow up with Pidgin as their first tongue.
The Mungo are regular attendees of the annual Ngondo, a traditional festival of the Sawa peoples. The goal is to communicate with the ancestors and ask them for guidance and protection for the future. The festivities also include armed combat, beauty pageants, pirogue races, and traditional wrestling.
The Mungo are Bantu in language and origin. More narrowly, they fall into the Sawa, or the coastal peoples of Cameroon.
- ^ This is the estimated number of first-language speakers of the Duala language according to Ethnologue. This includes both the Duala and Mungo ethnic groups, so this number is inflated for 1982.
- ^ "Duala", Ethnologue.
- ^ "Pidgin, Cameroon", Ethnologue.
- ^ Guide touristique 126.
- Chrispin, Dr. Pettang, directeur. Cameroun: Guide touristique. Paris: Les Éditions Wala.
- Fanso, V. G. (1989). Cameroon History for Secondary Schools and Colleges, Vol. 1: From Prehistoric Times to the Nineteenth Century. Hong Kong: Macmillan Education Ltd.
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005): "Duala". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th ed. Dallas: SIL International. Accessed 6 June 2006.
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005): "Pidgin, Cameroon". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th ed. Dallas: SIL International. Accessed 6 June 2006.
- Peuple Sawa (in French)
Selon les sources, on observe quelques variantes : Mboo, Mbos, Sambo.
Notes et référencesModifier
- (en) A. Willcox et D. Nambu, « Wildlife hunting practices and bushmeat dynamics of the Banyangi and Mbo people of Southwestern Cameroon », in Biological Conservation, 2007, 134 (2), p. 251–261
- Marguerite Diengué-Ngolé, Les chemins de la noce : essai sur l'élite féminine chez les Mbo du Cameroun, Université Paris 5, 1989, 309 p. (thèse de 3e cycle d'Anthropologie)
- Ibrahim Mouiche, « Les Mbo », in Autorités traditionnelles et démocratisation au Cameroun : entre centralité de l'État et logiques de terroir, Lit, Münster, 2005, p. 229-230 (ISBN 9783825890841)