The new economy refers to the digital economy that has emerged with the invention of computer technologies and the use of computers, software, the internet, the web, smartphones and now the blockchain.
Computer technologies lead to an increase in the interconnection, speed and distance of communications and information exchange. These technologies have developed strongly since the 1980s, leading in a few years to the fourth industrial revolution.
The personal computer, which appeared in the 1970s, is intended for use in every office and every home by every person.
The personal computer market really took off under the impetus of Apple with its Apple II, released in 1977, whose sales increased rapidly. The company quickly made significant profits and went public in 1980. The operation was a success, valuing it at 1.7 billion dollars, the largest IPO since Ford's in 1956.
The success of the Apple II alerts IBM (the mainframe giant), which, then late, begins to build its IBM-PC from the summer of 1980, equipping it only with standard components available on the microcomputer market, to put it on the market one year later. Even the operating system is external with the MS-DOS of Microsoft. IBM catches up, and in 1985 its PC division makes considerable profits, overtaking the Apple company which is experiencing production difficulties with its Apple III.
However, in this growing market, IBM's standard components were taken over by other manufacturers to produce Compatible PCs offering the same functionalities, the same operating system, and competing directly with the IBM-PC. With the Compatible PC, this market develops, new software appears, the demand increases, the prices drop, the sales multiply and the personal computer market does not stop growing in the following years.
Apple's computer ecosystem functions as a closed system with computers and their operating systems developed, built and assembled internally and then sold together in an inseparable way. However, in 1997, Apple, on the verge of bankruptcy, was saved by Microsoft with a $150,000 share buyout to avoid a monopoly situation in the operating system market - Microsoft was already undergoing an antitrust proceeding for its web browser case. Then with many innovations, such as the iMac in 1998 and the success of the iPhone in 2007, Apple becomes one of the most successful companies with a capitalization of nearly $ 3,000 billion by the end of 2021, making Apple the highest valuation of a company in the world at that date. It is one of the digital giants - which are grouped under the acronym GAFAM (Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple, Microsoft).
At the beginning of 2022, the market share of personal computers is 75% for PCs against 15% for Macs.
Thus the computer goes from mainframes, to microcomputers, to transportable computers, to laptops and finally to ultraportable computers. Then the computer is transformed into powerful servers installed in corporate networks, or in the server farms of data centers for cloud computing. It is also used for the decentralized cloud linking thousands of personal computers within specialized networks (Bittorrent, Tor, Blockchain).
In the early days of computing, in the 1950s, software programming was a scientific discipline. The source code of software was free of rights and was part of the public domain like any science.
The commercial proprietary software model, which appeared in the 1970s, grew strongly with the growth of microcomputer sales. Its principle consists in keeping the source code of software secret in order to market it under proprietary licenses, known as copyright, which strongly limits its study, private copy and sharing. Proprietary software is marketed under different forms of licenses, such as a perpetual license or a subscription license.
Based on ideas from the Xerox Parc, Apple develops internally its own operating system with a graphical interface directed with a mouse with its new computer, the Macintosh released in 1984. For its part, in order to move quickly, IBM chose the proprietary license of Microsoft's operating system, MS-DOS, followed by Windows, which also offered a graphical interface in November 1985.
Microsoft cleverly kept the rights to the MS-DOS license allowing it to sell its operating system to Compatible PC manufacturers. It did the same with Windows, selling the license to each PC manufacturer. This strategy led to strong growth in the following years. At the beginning of 2022, Microsoft, which is highly diversified, remains one of the most successful companies with a valuation of 2.3 trillion dollars, just behind Apple, even though Windows no longer represents a tiny part of its turnover. It is part of the digital giants, the GAFAM.
The weak points of proprietary software are the high cost of their license compared to free software or freeware, as well as the hacking that allows to bypass the payment of licenses, for example with the help of decentralized cloud such as Bittorrent.
Free software appeared as a reaction to the generalization of the proprietary model - even if its principle was earlier. The free software movement was formed with the impetus of copyleft formalized in the early 1980s by Richard Stallman through the GNU GPL license now under the aegis of the Free Software Foundation (FSF).
Free licenses allow everyone to view, study, modify and redistribute modified versions of free software both technically and legally. Thus, free licenses allow a return to the science of computing.
The development of most free software consists of the pooling of the work of voluntary contributors with various donations. The source codes of free software are available on large hosting platforms such as GitHub - bought by Microsoft for 7.5 billion dollars, which ultimately ensures the sustainability of this open source host. The power of this model lies in the reading and reuse of code within other FOSS projects.
The integrated development environments (IDE), which allow the programming of the code, integrate powerful collaborative tools that allow to synchronize the code with the hosts, to keep the history of the code, to work in team by checking the possible code conflicts, to list the bugs to be rectified, etc. This corresponds to the operating model of the collaborative encyclopedia Wikipedia, but is less permissive - for example, no one can modify the source code of a free software project outside the development team, but only make proposals or even ask to play a role in the team.
The biggest FOSS projects, like Mozilla, Chromium, Linux, Android, are developed through associations funded by large donations from consortia of large companies.
Creative Commons are their counterpart for reproducible computer works, like Wikipedia articles, images, music, videos, etc.
Open data, generally public, gathers authentic data allowing free access and use to this data.
IT services companies (SS2I) offer additional services, such as source code modifications to meet specific customer requirements or hardware maintenance using open source software.
The Linux operating system remains the most widely used project. It is integrated in many products such as peripherals (printers), embedded objects (IoT), internet boxes, televisions, computers, smartphones, industrial equipment, server clusters of the counting cloud, etc.
In the end, open source software contributes much more to the global economy than proprietary software.
The Internet, created in the mid-1970s, found its first major application with the World Wide Web, now abbreviated to the Web. It was invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee to link documents together and make them accessible to Internet users. The Web develops with the first web browsers in 1993 with Mosaic which becomes Netscape Navigator quickly dominating the sector of access to the Web.
Web 1.0 as initially invented was based on the Internet and used HTML text to describe each page. It was passive, i.e. without any interaction with the websites, except for being able to click on the links to move from one page to another, from one website to another. There were no search engines yet, only web site directories, the most famous of which was Yahoo!
The browsers of the time invented new HTML tags to extend the possibilities of the Web, including fields allowing to enter text, which allowed the appearance of the first search engines like Altavista, then Google in 1998.
This anarchic development of HTML tags ended in 1997 with the standardization of HTML 3.2 by the W3C.
Slowly from standard to standard the Web 1.0 will turn into Web 2.0.
Netscape's IPO in August 1995 was a success, tripling its share price on the first day, despite a $1.6 million deficit. This spectacular IPO brought about the first symptoms of the Internet bubble.
Understanding the importance of the Web of this new digital media, many investors massively finance the numerous start-ups showing promising business plans. These start-ups, which quickly entered the stock market, with market capitalizations unrelated to their actual sales or profits, created a fever in the markets and a speculative race for this new disruptive technology.
Seeing the success of Netscape, Microsoft launched in 1996 its web browser "Internet Explorer" (ie) integrated directly into Windows, which had the effect of eliminating all competition in this sector from 1998. However, in March 2000, Microsoft lost its antitrust lawsuit concerning this monopolistic practice. This event put an end to the speculative boom in the Internet sector, leading to the collapse of their stock market value, which resulted in a chain of bankruptcies and the bursting of the Internet bubble, which began in August 1995 with Netscape and ended in March 2000 with the monopoly of Internet Explorer.
If Web 1.0 was passive, Web 2.0 becomes participatory in the sense that Internet users can interact with websites and publish information, starting with discussion forums and blogs.
Created in 2001, Wikipedia is launching itself into Web 2.0. It is a collaborative encyclopedia whose editorial content is written directly by Internet users, each one contributing to articles by modifying them, developing them, correcting them, verifying them, etc. In 2021, Wikipedia reaches 1.7 billion monthly visitors, and is the 13th most visited site in the world. It offers 55 million articles in nearly 300 languages. It is totally independent and is financed only by donations.
In 2003, the first social network, MySpace, was created. It was quickly supplanted by Facebook, created in 2004, which connects Internet users with their friends. Each user creates a profile page with his contacts, photos and a thread of discussions. Modernizing year after year, it is gaining notoriety among Internet users. In 2022, Facebook will have nearly 3 billion monthly users and 2 billion daily users. It will generate a turnover of 117 billion dollars in 2021.
YouTube appeared on the Web in 2005, it offers Internet users to publish their videos and live broadcasts provided that they do not infringe copyright. In 2006 with 1.6 billion dollars, Google buys YouTube which becomes in a few years the first social media with about 2 billion monthly users in 2021. It will generate a turnover of 29 billion dollars in 2021.
In 2006, Twitter was created as a social network that comments on current events by sending micro-messages (tweets) of a few characters accompanied by photos or videos and grouped using hashtags. In 2021, Twitter has 217 million daily active users, and has a growing turnover of 5.1 billion dollars.
There are other diverse social networks, such as:
Instagram: photo-sharing social network, bought by Facebook in 2012 for $1 billion.
LinkedIn: social network for professionals, bought by Microsoft in 2016 for $26 billion.
Pinterest: social network for sharing photos of objects, still independent in 2021 and valued at $15 billion.
On the main Web 2.0 social networks, users publish their content for free, influencers are paid according to the number of their subscribers, and professionals pay for their advertising campaigns. A frequently shared content can quickly become viral and create a real "buzz". However, faced with the phenomenon of fake news, the networking platforms have had to put in place a stronger regulation of content. The economic model of social networks is mainly based on the capture of information from their users feeding their big data for targeted advertising purposes.
Personal digital assistants (PDAs), which are similar to computers and can be used with a stylus, precede smartphones. In 2007, Apple launched the first smartphone with its brand new iPhone. A smartphone works like a computer, being equipped with an operating system and mobile applications.
Apple keeps the same strategy of its closed ecosystem with all-in-one products, integrating the phone, the operating system (iOS) and an application store, the App Store, whose two million applications are very restricted, and excluding any other application store.
In 2005, Google bought the mobile operating system Android based on Linux, its source code is public and can be used on virtual machines. However, smartphone manufacturers need Google's main services and especially its application store, the Google Play Store, which will have two million applications available by 2021. This is a paid license, and what is commonly called "Android". This license does not exclude the presence of manufacturers' application stores. Google adopts a similar strategy to Microsoft by distributing its Android system to manufacturers of smartphones from 2008, gradually experiencing great success and passing ahead of the iPhone during 2012.
With 2.2% market share in 2016, Microsoft will fail to establish itself as the third competitor, abandoning its Windows Phone mobile operating system in 2017.
By 2020, the App Store and Play Store are proving extremely lucrative, taking 30% of all revenue generated by the apps offered on their app store, including purchases and subscriptions. However, by the end of 2021, under pressure from regulators, the two phone giants will reduce their commission to 15%.
In 2021, the number of smartphones in circulation will reach 6,370 million devices, with 4,450 million Android devices and 1,900 million iPhones. Also in 2021, the smartphone market, boosted by 5G telephony, is valued at $450 billion, broken down as follows: Android smartphones with 70% market share and the iPhone with 30% market share.
In this market, Apple benefits from being the historical player, its globally recognized brand and its high quality products, although offering a small and expensive range. It faces competition from Android smartphone manufacturers with a very diversified range in quality and price.
Google benefits from the acquisition of a lot of user data collected by its four and a half billion smartphones, which feed its big data.
Online marketplaces offer products and services that bring processionals and individuals together in a direct and instantaneous way. This is made possible by computers with the low cost of managing an infinite number of products, which is unfeasible in the traditional economy, like any physical store.
The first online marketplace was introduced with eBay in 1995. It sells second-hand products and later on professional products. The company experienced a growth rate of 150% over its first 10 years of existence. However, eBay does not benefit from being the historical player in this sector with a market capitalization of only 40 billion at the beginning of 2022, far from that of the GAFAM.
Launched in 1995, Amazon, initially an online bookstore, successfully entered the stock market in 1997. Its strategy of getting bigger as fast as possible (Get Bigger Faster) made it incur losses during its first years of existence. Amazon launched its marketplace for books in November 2000 in order to become profitable. The company did not make its first profits until early 2002. In 2003, Amazon incorporates the products within its marketplace and will know a growing success from year to year becoming almost a world monopoly. Its market capitalization is multiplied by five between 2005 and 2015. At the beginning of 2022, Amazon, with a strong diversification of its services (including Amazon AWS cloud computing), has a market capitalization of 2 500 billion dollars, making it part of the GAFAM group.
Uber was created in 2009 and offers a marketplace that replaces cabs by putting independent drivers in direct contact with customers who decide to go from one address to another using the mobile application. Drivers and customers are rated each other to ensure the respectability of the participants. The traditional cab market is rapidly collapsing.
The term uberization, it generalizes the business model of Uber. It is a socio-economic phenomenon designating a digital collaborative economy through marketplaces. Many players in the new economy are now applying this model.
Among the main uberized sectors are: transportation (Blablacar), home meal delivery (Deliveroo), second-hand services and products (Facebook Marketplace, LeBonCoin), services from one person to another (AlloVoisin), real estate subletting (Airbnb), hotels (Booking.com), education (Udemy), health (Doctolib), etc.
In order to be profitable, marketplaces charge commissions on each transaction and provide paid advertising services and products to professionals.
Online marketplaces provide a livelihood for many small and medium-sized businesses, craftsmen, and independent workers throughout the world, and provide financial assistance to many individuals. This model of uberization strengthens the economic fabric and increases growth.
Big data refers to all digital megadata resulting from the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). All Internet activities constantly generate colossal quantities of data that feed into Big Data. In order to be valuable, this megadata must be voluminous, varied, personal, and as truthful as possible.
Internet users' data comes from many sources, such as interactions on social networks (Facebook) with family, friends, or professional relationships (LinkedIn); queries on web and smartphone search engines, as well as on voice assistants (Google Assistant, Apple Siri, Amazon Alexa); websites visited, type of applications used, articles read in the news; places and establishments visited using mapping applications; reviews of products, services, professionals; online purchases; analysis of "keywords" in conversations listened to by smartphones.
In addition to user data, Big Data also aggregates data from the Internet of Things (IoT), which is made up of a variety of devices connected to the Internet that also serve as data sensors in the physical world.
Google, a major player in this sector, completes its big data with the megadata of its users collected by its web and mobile search engines (monopolizing 90% of queries), its four and a half billion Android smartphones, its numerous services such as Gmail, Google Shopping, Google Maps, Google news, Android calendars and contacts, etc. While Apple does not sell its big data, it does use it internally.
The cross-referencing and analysis of this data by machine learning, based on the vast infrastructures of the digital giants, allows them to know the socio-professional categories, the consumption habits, the preferences, the questions, the preoccupations, the intentions of their users, even to observe changes in macro-social trends in real time. This data allows digital giants to greatly increase the performance of user profiling, advertising targeting, but also more strategically of artificial intelligence (AI). To enhance their technologies, the digital giants are buying up many successful companies and small specialized start-ups.
Constantly updated, analyzed and exploited, this megadata represents huge sources of potential revenue, and is described as digital black gold.
Cloud computing offers many services, including:
Customer data storage cloud (STaaS) like Google Drive or Microsoft OneDrive.
Online software (SaaS) with Google Docs or Microsoft 365 office suites or telecommuting with Zoom.
The platform cloud (PaaS) or turnkey servers (IaaS) with the scalable provision of software, storage, networks, servers or website hosting.
Developers can access them via web browsers or by computer via programming interfaces (APIs). The cloud has the advantage of being accessible from anywhere on the globe from any internet device: by applications with APIs, and by development teams with web browsers. However, being paid, Richart Stallman points out that it represents a "proprietary trap" binding the customer to his cloud provider.
The use of online software has accelerated with the pandemic that began in early 2020. Their software updates are automatic, piracy disappears, but so does open source competition whose resources are too limited. Moreover, online software is no longer sold but more lucratively rented or monetized by collecting information for big data.
In 2021, the global cloud computing market is estimated to be worth $445 billion. The three players dominating the market are:
Amazon AWS with a revenue of $62 billion, the leader as the historical player of the market.
Microsoft Azure with a turnover of 60 billion dollars thanks to its wide range of Microsoft products, its servers under Windows, and its Office 365 office suites for individuals, as well as Microsoft Cloud Platform for professionals.
Google Cloud with a turnover of 19 billion with its office suites Google Drive and Google Docs for individuals and Google Workspace for businesses, as well as relying on its numerous data centers spread around the world.
Cloud computing allows various software and applications to run without worrying about their underlying infrastructure. By 2021, some analysts believe that companies will save more than 50% of their IT budget by switching to cloud computing.
With its storage, computing power, scalability automation, virtually unlimited resources, programming interfaces, and millions of connected applications, cloud computing already looks like the beginning of an internet operating system, although it remains a "proprietary trap".
In 1660, the first print advertisement appeared in the London Gazette. This first advertisement in what will become the official British newspaper will mark the beginning of the long history of advertising both in traditional media such as print, radio, cinema, TV, then in digital media with digital advertising on the Web, smartphones, mobile applications.
By analyzing big data, user profiling allows online advertising giants to offer targeted advertising that delivers ads targeted to a specific person with great reactivity to display the ad at the moment the user is inclined to purchase a product. The benefits for advertisers are targeting users already interested in the product, a lower advertising budget, and a higher return on investment. Targeted advertising allows small businesses to run profitable advertising campaigns to position themselves in niche markets. Marketplaces and targeted advertising facilitate the development of the economic fabric and thus economic growth.
With the acquisition of DoubleClick in 2007 for 3 billion dollars, Google became in the following years a giant of targeted advertising with its advertising network Google Ads used on its search engine, on YouTube, and on Android applications.
The digital advertising market is accelerating with the digitalization of media and targeted advertising. The estimated global market for traditional and digital advertising has grown in a decade from $475 billion in 2011, to $710 billion in 2021. By the end of 2021, this market will account for 62% of global advertising spend. The digital advertising market grows in a decade from $32 billion in 2011 to $442 billion in 2021. This increase does not benefit traditional advertising formats, which even decline from $440 billion in 2011 to $268 billion in 2021. Many traditional French media, which are in difficulty, are subsidized by public aid (press, cinema).
In 2021, the digital advertising market weighing nearly 450 billion dollars is monopolized by 3 digital giants whose market shares represent more than 80% distributed as follows
Alphabet (Google) with 218 billion dollars, or 50% of the market.
Meta (Facebook) with 115 billion dollars, or 25% of the market.
Amazon with 31 billion dollars, or 7% of the market, using sponsored products.
Born with the first web browsers, the digital advertising market has been enriched in a few years with many communication media, especially with the help of smartphones and targeted advertising: promotional emails and newsletters, marketing telephony, advertising on search engines, on social networks and media, targeted advertising inserts in applications, etc. Today, the means of communication available to advertisers are almost infinite.
Blockchain appeared on the Internet in 2009 with the Bitcoin network and its cryptocurrency BTC in response to the subprime economic crisis that hit the world in 2008. The blockchain offers the world of computing a new peer-to-peer technology of data registers that are unforgeable, distributed, open and without a central control body.
Crypto-currencies or more precisely cryptoassets have a monetary value and can be exchanged through blockchain transactions verified by "miners". The miners own the entire blockchain register in order to ensure that new transactions are not falsified, using proof protocols such as energy-intensive and therefore expensive cryptographic calculations (proof of work), or by investing cryptocurrency (proof of stake, PoS) which is energy-efficient and therefore inexpensive. In exchange for their services, miners earn cryptocurrency to pay for their essential participation in the operation of blockchains.
Cryptocurrencies are used for speculation, but also to pay hackers for ransomware, or to buy illicit products on the darknet or the deep web, or more recently to pay by credit card.
Stablecoins are backed by a fiat currency. They are usually correlated with the dollar (USD) which implies that each coin of the stablecoin is worth one dollar and vice versa and this without a central bank. Stablecoins are used by cryptocurrency owners to sell and buy them instantly, without passing through a bank account which can take several days to transfer depending on the country.
Regulators, such as the European Central Bank (ECB) or the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC regulating the US financial markets), take a dim view of these stable currencies that may eventually compete with the dollar and official currencies internationally, or even as a legal national currency as in El Salvador. Central banks are developing digital currency projects (MNBC) to counter this risk, following the example of China's digital currency, the e-yuan, from 2021.
With the cryptocurrency bubble at the end of 2017, this sector is attracting a lot of public and media attention. There are also many websites and apps being created with blockchains as a unique theme.
During this cryptocurrency bubble, the capitalization of cryptocurrencies is valued at 180 billion dollars in September 2017, it increases to 770 billion in early 2018, an increase of 420% in less than five months, before dropping back to 260 billion in April 2018, a division by three in less than four months.
Again in 2021, the cryptocurrency market varies greatly. Market capitalization stagnates in early 2021 at $160 billion, then rises to $1.2 trillion in July, then increases to $3 trillion in November, a 250% increase in four months, before falling back to $1.5 trillion in January 2022, a halving in less than three months, demonstrating true speculation. Despite this, long-term cryptoasset owners (holders) are generally the winners in the market, with, for example, a tripling of investment from the beginning to the end of 2021, or similarly between the cryptocurrency bubble of late 2017 and early 2022.
If the technical analyses of market traders allow to anticipate prices with the help of charts and statistics, it is however noted that the crypto-currency market is more governed by events that can occur randomly, such as institutional regulations or Elon Musk's tweets agreeing one time to the purchase of Tesla in Bitcoins before putting an end to it a few weeks later, which makes this market particularly unstable.
This strong speculation is mainly due to the youth of crypto-currencies and their low capitalization compared to the disruptive potential of blockchain technology with Web 3.0 for example.
Cryptocurrency exchanges, run by companies, allow the public to buy and trade crypto assets. These marketplaces also allow to keep these assets instead of cryptocurrency wallets which are pseudonymous because stored in blockchain registers. With successive regulations on this market, buyers have been required to provide their identity in order to avoid money laundering. Exchanges offer bank cards that automatically convert cryptocurrencies into official currencies, allowing for in-store or online purchases of products, as well as ATM withdrawals, all with only a 2 to 3% fee.
There are also decentralized cryptocurrency marketplaces operating on blockchains without intermediaries with Web 3.0.
Programmable blockchains have a programming language capable of creating smart contracts with the characteristics of the blockchain, thus being :
Auditable by all, because their source code is written in clear text in the blockchain, readable like a contract that is signed.
Unalterable, because the writing of a data in a blockchain is definitive and cannot be modified.
Resistant to censorship, because it is decentralized, autonomous and without any control body.
Created in 2015, the main programmable blockchain is the Ethereum project and its ETH cryptocurrency. As of January 2022, Ethereum is valued as the second largest market capitalization with $440 billion, just behind Bitcoin valued at $878 billion. Between them, they account for 63% of the cryptocurrency capitalization.
If Web 1.0 was based on hyperlinks and Web 2.0 on social networks, Web 3.0 is based on blockchain technology.
Web 3 or Web 3.0 has the same characteristics as the blockchain, namely that it is decentralized, open and without any controlling body. Web 3.0 criticizes Web 2.0 for the centralization of user data allowing the collection of megadata, it intends to break the oligopoly of the web giants.
Decentralized cloud computing offers the same characteristics as the cloud computing that Richard Stallman criticized, but this time with the FOSS philosophy. The decentralized cloud proposes the sharing of data storage combined with decentralized applications, and allowing the reappropriation of data by users, individuals as well as professionals.
Web 3.0 constitutes the back-end (database and servers) of websites or mobile applications serving as showcases to access them. From Web 3.0 emerges a lot of decentralized projects like online betting, games, financial markets.
Non-fungible tokens (NFT) are the equivalent of a title deed that can certify any digital or real property, and can replace the jobs of notary and auctioneer, being then decentralized on blockchain markets.
Decentralized applications (DAO or now DApps) are blockchain organizations that run on a set of smart contracts establishing collective governance rules. Like the blockchain, decentralized applications remain impossible to regulate by governments.
Blockchain oracles verify facts from an information source that integrates values from the physical world within decentralized applications, made accessible by the Internet of Things or from official data.
Decentralized finance (DeFi) replaces financial intermediaries with decentralized financial markets using DApps, thus without realistic government intervention. For example, decentralized finance makes it possible to dispense with banks by borrowing from DeFi liquidity pools, to replace traditional investments with DeFi investments, to offer financial markets with permanent quotations without closing them.
Web 3.0 made up of cryptocurrencies will become usable in the operation of almost any activity on the Internet with tiny micropayments.
Web 3.0 interconnecting blockchains and their cryptocurrencies, decentralized applications and their smart contracts, oracles and their internet sensors, data and the decentralized cloud, will result in a free operating system of the internet.
The decentralized web represents the expectations of an internet that would break down existing power structures and even state institutions.
After gesture communication, speech, writing, printing, mail, radio, TV, the Internet, the Web, blockchain, Web 3.0, and the Internet operating system, the evolution of communications would eventually lead to a common, complete, global, free interconnection of human and artificial intelligence.
Notes et référencesModifier
- « La quatrième révolution industrielle a commencé », sur Siècle Digital, (consulté le )
- Bulle Internet
- Commerce électronique
- Croissance économique
- Économie de l'information
- Économie numérique
- Économie post-industrielle
- Économie du savoir
- Fracture numérique (générationnelle)
- Gouvernance d'Internet
- Révolution numérique
- Technologies de l'information et de la communication
- "La révolution Google" de John Battelle traduit en français par Dov Rueff, 2006, (ISBN 978-2-212-11903-9)